Share Safely:.

To be on the safe side, keep the following things in mind when using a public computer or network:

Protect your Devices
Public computers can have a lot more malware on them. If you must plug your own device into a public computer, be sure to scan it with anti-virus software afterwards.

Personal Information
Protect your Information
Public networks are not always secure and you never know if someone is spying on the information you send. Avoid entering or viewing any personal information, even passwords, on a public computer or network.

If you absolutely have to log in to an account, change your password once you are back on a secure computer.

Leave Nothing Behind
Don't let the computer store any of your information, delete your files, clear the browser cache and history, and empty the trash before you walk away.

Snooping Eyes
Avoid Snooping Eyes
Some people can't help looking at other people's computer monitors. If you're doing something you don't want other people to see, don't do it on a public computer.

Wash Your Hands
Wash Your Hands
Who knows how many people have touched that computer before you or how dirty their hands were! After using a public computer, wash your hands!

Welcome to the Carnegie Cyber Academy Library! Here you will find useful resources for cyber defense and web research, all nicely organized by Maya, the Academy's librarian. You can also find tips for using the Web effectively for research, shopping and fun.

Using the Web for Research

The Internet can be a great resource as long as you know how to use it. Here you will find tips for effective web research to help you get the most out of the Internet and separate the worthwhile information from the worthless.

Maya Searching

Searching for Resources
Tips for searching for Web resources effectively.

Maya Evaluating

Evaluating Source Credibility
Tips for determining if a web resource is credible.

Maya Using

Using Web Resources
Tips for using web resources appropriately and correctly.


Sometimes training for cyber defense is like learning a new secret language. Good thing Maya keeps this encyclopedia of cyber defense terms handy:




A type of chat slang that is commonly used among gamers. It comes from the word “elite” and is a special form of writing where combinations of numbers and characters are used to replace alphabet letters. For example, 3 replaces the letter E and 4 replaces the letter A, so the phrase "1 4m l33t" stands for “I am elite.”

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang


Short for Local Area Network, a computer network that covers a relatively small area, like a building. Each computer in a LAN can access and share data with any other device in the network. This allows a group of people to share information and peripherals, such as printers, and to communicate with each other through the network by sending messages or chatting.


See Hyperlink.


An acronym for Laugh Out Loud.

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang


Mail Server

See Server, Mail.

Malicious Search Results

Fake websites that show up in a search engine's results that can actually take you to risky websites that infect your computer with malware. Sometimes cyber criminals fill these websites with common keywords or phrases people search for to trick them into visiting the site.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


Short for Malicious Software, software that harms your computer or steals your data.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Man-in-the-Middle Attack

Spying on communications between two parties without their knowledge. The spy can then read and change the data as they intercept it.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


A unit of computer data storage. There are 1024 kilobytes in 1 megabyte.

Memory Leaks

When a program doesn't properly clear the memory after closing, making it unusable for other programs. Over time, this memory loss can lead to a slower computer or even a computer that constantly crashes. Most memory leaks are caused by malware or bugs.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


Blog posts that are no longer than 200 characters. Twitter is a popular microblogging service.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications


The chip that contains a computer's CPU.

Learn more: How Computers Work


Incorrect or false information.

Learn more: Evaluating the Information

Misleading Applications

A type of malware that mimics anti-malware software. They can install themselves when you are browsing the Internet, or they can trick you into installing them by imitating system alert messages.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


Short for Massively Multiplayer Online Game, an online video game capable of supporting thousands of players at the same time. They have persistent worlds, meaning it continues to exist and evolve when a player isn't playing it.

Learn more: Online Gaming Netiquette

Mobile Device

A portable electronic device. Many mobile devices can use wireless or cell phone networks to connect to the Internet.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices

Mobile Hotspot

A device that can act as a wireless router, allowing nearby devices to connect to the Internet as if they were connecting to any other wireless network. Smart phones, USB modems, and some cars can act as hot spots.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices


A peripheral device that converts analog signals into digital signals, and vice versa. To connect to the Internet over a telephone, cable or DSL line, which are made out of metal wires, you need a modem to convert your computer's digital signal into an analog signal that it can send over the wires. The modem translates the analog data it receives back into a digital signal that your computer can understand.

Learn more: How Computers Work


People who have the authority to enforce the rules and terms of use in games, forums and chat rooms.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


Also called a logic board or mainboard, a board with electrical circuits printed on it that holds many components essential for a computer’s function, like the CPU and graphics card. The electrical circuits on the board allow the components to receive power and communicate with each other.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A sound file format that compresses the data to make very tiny files. It is a standard format for digital audio players, such as MP3 players

MP3 Player

An electronic device that stores and plays digital MP3 files.


Containing a combination of different types of content, like text, still images, audio, animations, videos and interactive content.


National Cybersecurity Awareness Month

Sponsored by the United States' Department of Homeland Security and taking place during the month of October, a time to encourage everyone to be more cyber-aware, to be aware of the risks and dangers of the Internet and steps you can take to protect yourself and your devices.


A type of domain that originally indicated a website was involved in networking technologies. It is now used for other types of sites as well.


Rules for acting respectful and polite in cyberspace. These rules help keep the Internet safe and friendly.

Learn more: Betty's Guide to Netiquette

Net Neutrality

A philosophy that the Internet should be a "neutral" place and that no government or Internet service provider should be able to restrict online communication. People that oppose net neutrality believe that those who are willing to pay more should get the best access to the Internet and be able to download the most data at the fastest speeds.


A group of computers and devices connected by communications channels, either wired or wireless, which allows users to communicate and share resources, like peripherals, with each other.

Network Interface Card

A hardware card in your computer that lets you connect your computer to a network. Each network card has a unique address that identifies the computer on the network.

Learn more: How Computers Work

Network Sabotage

The deliberate disruption of a computer network, either by destroying it or blocking it.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Non-Renewable Resources

A natural resource that cannot be produced, grown, or generated, such as coal, oil, and precious metals. There is a fixed amount of them on the planet, and once they have been used up there will be no more.

Learn more: Green Computing


Short for No Mobile Phobia, a made-up term to describe the anxious feeling you get when you lose your mobile phone.


Offline Identity

Your identity in real life, who you really are. It is made up of your personal information and it is very risky to use your offline identity in cyberspace.

Learn more: Protecting Your Personal Information

Online Identity

Your identity in cyberspace, who you are on the Internet. It is made up of your online alias, your avatar, things you post, and information you enter into online profiles. A safe online identity doesn't reveal your personal information.

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity

Online Reputation

Your reputation, or what other people think of you, in Cyberspace; the cumulative effect of all the actions you do under your Online Identity.

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity


A type of domain that originally indicated a website was run by a non-profit or non-commercial organization.


Short for Operating System, tThe software that allows you to interact with the computer and run the programs on it. It is like the computer's spine, connecting the "brain", the CPU, to the rest of the body, the programs and devices. The most common operating systems for desktop computers are Windows, Mac OS, and UNIX.

Learn more: How Computers Work


P2P Network

See Peer-to-Peer Network


A small chunk of data sent over a network.

Packet Sniffer

A device or software program that spies on packets traveling between networked computers, collecting them so a cyber criminal can look at them later. Packet sniffers run in the background collecting data but don’t actually send any data out, so they can be very hard to detect. They can be used in helpful ways, like to gain information about a network intrusion, but they can also be used in criminal ways, like to spy on other network users and collect personal information.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Parental Controls

Software that your parent or trusted adult can use to help make your Internet experience more safe. These controls can let them set which games you can play, which programs you can use, which websites you can visit, and when. While this may sound like they are trying to control your online life, these controls are really to protect you from stumbling across content that might make you afraid or uncomfortable.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


A series of letters, numbers, and special characters that you use to get access to a protected computer, network, or software program. Passwords make sure that information is only accessed by people who are supposed to see it.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


A small software program designed to update a program or fix security vulnerabilities or bugs in it.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses


Short for Personal Digital Assistant, an electronic mobile device that can be used to manage your schedule, address book and to-do list. It typically carries a lot of personal information. Many PDAs now have some of the same functions as computers, mobile phones, and digital audio players and can access the Internet.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices

Peer-to-Peer Network

A type of network that allows computer users to share everything from files to network bandwidth with one another. A user must install software to access the network, then they can search through and download the files of any computer on the network. They can be risky because they give others direct access to your files, and many peer-to-peer programs don’t allow their users to have a firewall in place so they can leave your computer open for a malware infection.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


A device that is not necessary for a computer to function but that helps you use it and the Internet. These include: keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, scanners, external hard drives, USB flash drives, speakers, modems and routers.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A link to a specific blog or forum post after it has moved from the website's home page to the archives.

Personal Information

Any information about you that can be used to identify you or find out where you are. This includes not only the obvious things like your full name and your address, but less-obvious things, like your car's license plate number or what sports team you play on.

Learn more: Protecting Your Information.

Personal Information Filter

A checklist of questions to ask yourself before posting something in cyberspace to decide if it is too personal to share.

Learn more: Protecting Your Information


A social engineering scam that is similar to phishing but it does not require an initial email for bait. Victims are redirected to a fake website when they are trying to visit a safe one. The fake website prompts them to enter their personal information, like their password or credit card number, so that cyber criminals can steal it.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


A social engineering scam in which the cyber criminal sends a potential victim an email with a link to a fake website. The email message and website are designed to trick the victim into thinking they are from a credible source like their bank or PayPal. If the victim falls for it and enters their information into the site, the cyber criminal can steal it.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Phishing Filter

Defensive software that protects you from phishing attacks. Phishing filters are usually an add-on for web browsers or email software, and they attempt to identify phishing content in web pages and emails.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Photo Sharing Website

A type of social networking site that you can use to manage and share your photos. Flickr and Picasa are popular photo sharing sites. Also see Video Sharing Site

Learn more: Communicating Safely


When a computer calls out to another computer to see if it is active. The term comes from the sound a submarine makes when its sonar pulse bounces off something. Cyber criminals can attack a server by constantly pinging it, called a “ping storm.” Ping storms are a Denial of Service attack and can make it impossible to access a website.


The individual dots in a monitor that combine to make up the display. Generally, pixels are made up of four different colors - red, blue, yellow, and black - which are used in different combinations to form the different shades of colors you see.


From the word "plagiarius," meaning "to plunder," copying someone else's written or creative work without their permission and pretending that it is your own.

Learn more: Avoiding Plagiarism


A small computer program that adds features to a software program. Some popular plug-ins, like video and music players, work with web browsing software to add special features. Other plug-ins help to add extra security or make the program more efficient.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A web browser window that appears when you click a link or visit a website in another window. These pop-ups are frequently advertisements and can sometimes be caused by adware.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Pop-up Blocker

Defensive software that prevents pop-ups from displaying. They are usually built into a web browser or can be added as a plug-in. Since not all pop-ups are risky and not all are advertisements, most pop-up blockers will let you know when they have blocked one and allow you to unblock it if you need to.

Learn more: Setting Up Your Defenses

Privacy Settings

Settings used to adjust who can see your content on a website, forum or profile.

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity


A collection of information about you, like where you go to school and your hobbies and interests. Some websites, like social networking sites and forums, allow you to fill out an online profile so that other users can find out more about you. Users must walk a fine line when filling out a profile to make sure they aren't revealing anything too personal or risky.

Learn more: Protecting Your Information

Proxy Server

See Server, Proxy



Isolating malware discovered during a scan by anti-malware software into a special area of the hard drive so it can't infect other files in the computer.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense



Short for Random Access Memory, a type of computer memory that is used for short-term data storage. In most computers, it is a circuit board installed in the motherboard. Random Access means that the stored data can be accessed in any order, regardless of where it is physically stored on the board. It is like a bucket to store data in, whenever you need to retrieve it, you just reach in the bucket and grab it. Also see SAM.

Learn more: How Computers Work

Remote Backup

A service that lets users back up and store their data on a distant server. Some remote services will regularly back up data without a user needing to do anything.

Learn more: Back Up Your Data

Rogue iFrames

When a cyber criminal hacks into a website that contains an iFrame, special HTML code that inserts outside content into a website, and inserts their own iFrame content that contains malware. Since the object appears on a trusted website, users are much more likely to click on the hacker’s content.

Learn more: Setting Up Your Defenses

Rogue Security Software

Software that claims to protect your computer but actually infects it with all kinds of malware.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


A device that connects one network with another and decides how to best transmit information between them to make sure that it gets to its destination quickly and accurately.

Learn more: How Computers Work


Short for Repetitive Stress Injury, an injury that can happen any time the same motion is repeated over and over again, like using a computer mouse or playing a sport. RSIs can happen when you use a computer for long periods of time without taking breaks to stretch your legs and rest your eyes and wrists. You can also get an RSI called "Texter's Thumb" from sending text messages from a mobile device.


Short for Real Simple Syndication, a format for web feeds, which are collections of the latest content updates made to a website, such as a blog. You can use newsreader or aggregator software to collect, organize, and read through RSS feeds. Many websites have RSS buttons that you just click on to subscribe to their RSS feed.



Short for Serial Access Memory, a type of computer memory that is used for short-term data storage. It is slower than RAM because it has to be accessed in the order it was stored in, like a cassette tape. SAM is useful for long connected bits of data that don't need to be accessed randomly, like a video buffer.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A way to connect to the Internet that uses satellite transmissions rather than landlines. It is popular in areas where cable and DSL are unreliable or unavailable. Satellite connections can be slow and choppy when playing games or downloading.


See Internet Fraud.


A type of malware that tries to scare victims into downloading something, usually through a fake pop-up. Sometimes the download can be harmless but sometimes it is rogue security software or contains malware.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defenses


See Username.

Script Kiddie

Somebody who uses hacking software created by someone else to break into people's computers. Script kiddies usually do not know how to hack on their own.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


Moving a web page up and down in the web browser window in order to see the parts of the page that are below or above what you can see on the screen.

Search Engine

A website that lets you search for websites and other documents on the Internet that contain a certain keyword or phrase.

Learn more: Searching for Resources


A computer on a network that provides services, like email, online games, and website hosting, to clients.

Server, Mail

A server that is dedicated to providing email services.

Server, Proxy

A server that has a job to do with information travelling between a computer and another server on the network. Some proxy servers protect users' personal information by encrypting their connection, others block certain websites or scan for malware before the data is delivered. They can also be used for bad purposes, like to access a website that someone does not have permission to access.

Server, Web

A server that is dedicated to hosting websites.


Software that you can download from the Internet that is normally free for a period of time. Before you can use it, you must accept the licensing agreement, which will tell you how long you can use the program for free before needing to pay for it. This can be a length of time, like a week or a month, or it could be after opening the program a certain number of times. Also see Freeware.

Learn more: Be Careful With Files


The informal use of a word so that it means something different. For example, using "cool" to describe something that is impressive or good.

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang


An electronic mobile device that combines the features of a phone and a PDA and can access the Internet through the phone service.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices


Short for Short Message Service, the standard format that most phones use to send text messages. Today, many mobile phone providers also offer email and alert services over SMS.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications

Social Engineering

A tactic used by cyber criminals that uses lies and manipulation to trick people into revealing their personal information. Social engineering attacks frequently involve very convincing fake stories to lure victims into their trap.

Learn more: How Cyber Criminals Operate

Social Networking Site

A website that brings people together to keep in touch, share news, links and pictures, and even make new friends. Social Network users have a profile and a group of friends that they can share things with.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


A set of instructions written in computer code that tells your device's hardware what to do, the computer's "programs". The kind of software you can use on a device is limited by the kind of hardware you have.

Learn more: How Computers Work

Sound Card

A hardware card in your computer that processes and outputs sound. It can work with both the internal and external speakers to provide sound.

Learn more: How Computers Work


The Internet version of junk mail, a cyber crime where someone sends the same message to several people, usually to advertise something. Spammers collect email addresses for their attacks by illegally scanning cookies or looking for addresses on websites.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Spam Filter

Software that filters spam out of your email.

Learn more: Setting Up Your Defenses


Revealing a part of the plot of a television show, book, movie, or play. If you are going to reveal a spoiler in cyberspace, it's good netiquette to warn people before they read it by writing ****SPOILER ALERT**** before and ****END SPOILERS**** after it.

Learn more: Betty's Guide to Netiquette


A type of malware that spies on what you do on the Internet and can steal information about you from your computer.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses

Surge Protector

An extension for an electrical outlet that allows you to plug multiple devices into one outlet and also protects those devices from power "surges."

Learn more: How Computers Work


Tablet PC

A portable personal computer with a touchscreen. You usually use an onscreen keyboard and stylus rather than a keyboard and mouse to interact with a tablet PC.


A label or keyword you can apply to web content. They are used in blogs and bookmarking websites to organize content into categories, and on social networking and photo storage websites to identify people and things in photos.

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity


Also called electronic waste or e-waste, any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic device. Technotrash contains toxic and non-biodegradable materials that are very unsafe for the environment, and it has to be disposed of using special methods.

Learn more: Environmental Issues

Terms of Use

A list of guidelines given by a company that provides a service, such as a social networking site or an online game. These guidelines are meant to inform you of what behaviors will get your account banned from the site or game, such as cyber bullying, posting forbidden content, or using a fake identity to create your account.

Learn more: Betty's Guide to Netiquette

Text Message

A brief written message sent from one mobile device or computer to another. The sender of a text message is called a "texter" and sending text messages is called "texting".

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications

Thumb Drive

See USB Flash Drive


Something that can damage a living organism.

Learn more: Environmental Issues

Trojan Horse

A type of malware disguised as legitimate software. Attackers can either attach a Trojan horse to useful software, or trick you into thinking the Trojan horse itself is useful software. Trojan horses are different from viruses and worms because they cannot replicate themselves.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses


See Forum Troll.

Trusted Adult

An adult that you trust, like a parent or teacher, whom you can talk to about anything weird or icky that you encounter in cyberspace. Your trusted adult can help you solve problems and come up with strategies for keeping yourself and your devices safe.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


Unsafe Form

A form that asks for personal information, like a credit card number. Cyber criminals can trick people into giving them your personal information by filling out a fake form.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


Sending files from a computer or device to a server or computer somewhere on the Internet.


Short for Uniform Resource Locator, the address of a website. For example, the URL for this website is: Also see Domain.


Short for Universal Serial Bus, a type of port on your computer that you can plug devices into.

Learn more: How Computers Work

USB Flash Drive

A portable hard drive that plugs into a USB port.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A name you use to identify yourself on a computer or website. Your username is a major part of your online identity.

Learn more: Creating a Safe Online Identity


Vampire Power

Electricity consumed by electronic devices when they are switched off or in stand-by mode. Sometimes, this is to keep a digital clock running or power lights on.

Learn more: Computers and Electricity Usage


Software or hardware that is announced years before an actual release date is planned, and sometimes it is never released.

Video Chatting

Chatting on the Internet using a webcam and a video chat program.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications

Video Networking Site

A type of social networking site that you can use to manage and share your videos. YouTube is a popular video sharing site. Also see Photo Sharing Site

Learn more: Communicating Safely


A type of malware that can modify, delete or steal your files, make your system crash or take over your machine. Viruses can infect your computer if you use a file containing one, called a "host file." Once you release a virus, it can infect other files just like a real virus spreads to other people and cells.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses

Voice Chatting

Using a microphone or headset to chat with other people in cyberspace. You can voice chat with VOIP software and sometimes directly through a program, such as an online game. Many online gamers use voice chatting while playing in a group to stay organized.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications


Short for Voice over Internet Protocol, the rules and formats that apply to transmitting voices over the Internet, so that it can be used as a telephone. It is usually less expensive to call people long distance with VOIP software, such as Skype.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications


Security holes or weaknesses in a piece of software that a cyber criminal can take advantage of.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses


Web 2.0

A term for the current generation of the Internet, the "second" version that allows people to have two-sided communication and collaboration. In the "first" version of the Internet, information was delivered in a one-sided way, someone would create a website and you could look at it but you couldn't comment on it or share it easily with your friends. Examples of Web 2.0 trends are socializing on social networking sites, running software through the web browser, publishing blogs that other people can comment on, and sharing media on photo and video sharing sites.

Web Browser

A software program that you use to look at websites. Popular web browsers include Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, and Opera.

Web Browsing

Clicking on hyperlinks to navigate from one website to another.


A video camera that can be used as a peripheral device for your computer. Webcams feed video in real-time rather than recording it to a storage device.

Web Page

A document that you can view on the Internet using a web browser. Web pages can contain words, pictures, video, interactive content and hyperlinks to other web pages and files. Also see Website

Web Search

See Search Engine.

Web Server

See Server, Web.


A collection of related web pages. You can access a website by entering its URL into a web browser, which will take you to the home page, or by clicking on a hyperlink that takes you to it.

Website Vandalism

The "graffiti" of cyberspace, a cyber crime where someone tampers with or damages another person’s website.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Web Surfing

See Web Browsing.

Weirdo Stranger

See Cyber Predator.

White Hat Hacker

See Hacker, White Hat.


Short for Wireless Fidelity, a way to connect to the Internet using radio waves to connect devices instead of using wires and cables.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices

WiFi Hotspot

A location where a WiFi wireless network is available to connect to.

Wish list

A list of items you would like to have or buy. Many shopping websites let you to save a wish list and share it with your friends in case they need to get you a gift.

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity


A way to connect to the Internet with a wireless network interface card or mobile device, using radio waves instead of wires and cables. There must be a WiFi, WiMax, or cellular network in range of the device, and connection speeds vary a lot, depending on the device, the distance from the access point, and the strength of the signal.

World Wide Web (WWW)

All of the webpages on the Internet.


A type of malware that copies itself and uses a computer network to send these copies to other computers on the network. Unlike viruses, they do not require you to open a file in order to spread. Worms can consume bandwidth on a network and install other malware that gives hackers access and helps them create zombie computers for a botnet.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses




Zero Day Attack

A cyber attack that takes advantage of vulnerabilities in newly released and un-patched software. Cyber criminals launch the attack on the first day new software is available, before the developers can create and distribute a patch for it.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

ZIP File

A data compression and archive format. A ZIP file contains one or more files that have usually been compressed to reduce file size.

Zombie Computer

A computer that has been hacked into and is used to launch malicious attacks or to become part of a botnet.

Learn more: How Cyber Criminals Operate




A type of Internet chat slang, an abbreviated version of a phrase, like BRB for Be Right Back, LOL for Laugh Out Loud, and FYI for For Your Information. They are much faster than typing out the entire phrase, and can be very useful when text messaging.

Learn more: Internet chat slang


A type of malware that makes advertisements appear on your computer. Adware is usually included with other programs, so that when you install the program you want, you also install the adware.

Learn more: Maintaining Your Defenses


See Username.


Without a name. If someone is being anonymous in cyberspace, they never use their real name and might not even use an Alias.

Anti-Malware Software

Defensive software that protects your computer from malware like viruses, spyware, and Trojan horses. It scans your computer for malware and removes any that it finds. It can also run continuously in the background and catch malware infections right when they happen. Anti-Malware software needs to be updated regularly to be able to catch the latest malware.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Anti-Spyware Software

Anti-malware software that focuses on protecting your computer from spyware.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Anti-Virus Software

Anti-malware software that focuses on protecting your computer from viruses.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


Short for "application," software that allows users to perform a task, like writing a document or keeping a to-do list. Applications for computers are usually called "programs," the term "app" usually refers to applications that can be downloaded to a smartphone.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices


A collection of documents or webpages. An blog archive has webpages of all the past blog posts.


A file that is attached to an email message. You can tell that an email has an attachment if it has a paper clip icon. Attachments can be text files, pictures or music, and they can also contain malware.

Learn more: Be Careful With Files


A digital representation of a user or game player. Avatars can be an icon or a 3-D character and are used in online games and on forums and websites. The word comes from the Sanskrit word avatara, meaning "incarnation" or the earthly form of a spirit or god (Source: Wikipedia).

Learn more: Managing Your Online Identity

Away Message

In Instant Messenger programs, a message you can leave for people trying to chat with you when you're not at the computer. It can be a fun way to let your friends know what you are doing, but can also be risky if you share too much personal information or make it visible to the wrong people.

Learn more: Protecting Your Information



Copying the data from your hard drive to a storage device like a CD, DVD, external hard drive or thumb drive. Backing up your data regularly will help reduce the damage when something bad happens to your computer, like a malware infection or hardware failure.

Learn more: Back Up Your Data


Links to a website from other websites. The number of backlinks a website has can help give you an idea of what others think of the site and its content.

Learn more: What Do Others Think of the Site?


The speed of an Internet connection. A bandwidth of 5 mbps can process 5 megabytes, or 500 bytes, of digital information every second without slowing down or crashing.

Bandwidth can also be the amount of data you are allowed to send or receive in a network. Schools and businesses sometimes have bandwidth limits for their users to keep the network from slowing down.

Banner Ads

A type of online advertisement that is "embedded" or part of the webpage. They come in a variety of sizes, but are usually a rectangular box. Banner ads can look like games, have video or sound, and can even appear to float on top of the webpage. They are designed to tempt you away from the site you are visiting by looking fun and exciting.


A tendency or preference towards a certain opinion or point-of-view, especially when the tendency makes it hard to be impartial, unprejudiced, or objective. If a website's author has a bias, the information on their website might not be completely reliable for research.

Learn more: Evaluating Source Credibility


Able to be decomposed, or broken down, over time in the environment by bacteria or other organisms. Biodegradable materials are less harmful to the environment.

Learn more: Environmental Issues


Short for "binary digit," the smallest unit of computer data storage. A bit represents either a one (1) or zero (0), which a computer reads as "on" or "off."

There are 8 bits in a byte. A bit is like a letter and a byte like a word. Each individual letter carries information ("on" or "off") but no real meaning. When these letters are combined to form words, however, they can be used to convey a variety of information.


A file format commonly used for images that come from a scanner or digital camera. A bitmap file is made up of a set number of pixels aligned in a grid, a "map" of "bits."

Black Hat Hackers

See Hacker, Black Hat.


Short for "Web log," a personal website that is usually used to keep a journal or diary. Some blogs focus on a specific topics like travel or politics. The author of a blog is called a "blogger."


A data-writing format that uses a blue-violet laser to write data to a disc. Since the blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than a traditional red laser, it is more accurate and data can be stored in smaller packets. A Blu-ray disc can hold as much as 500 gigabytes, which is as much data as 28 top-quality DVDs.


Also called Favorites, links to websites that you can store in your web browser so that you do not have to type in the URL each time you want to visit a site.


A network of bits of software that run themselves, like robots or "bots." BotNets are created by cyber criminals to quickly distribute malware.

Learn More: Cyber Criminal Attack Techniques


An acronym for Be Right Back.

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang


A type of Internet connection that uses cable television or DSL lines. Broadband connections have a "broad" bandwidth and are up to 70 times faster than dial-up connections. They allow you to stay connected to the Internet all the time, so they can put your computer at a higher risk for malware infection.

Learn more: Disconnect Your Computer to Protect It


See Web Browser.

Browser Compatability

The ability of a website to appear and function the same way in different web browsers. Browsers interpret the HTML, or "code" of websites, a little differently. Web designers must take this into account when writing the code of a website so that it will be compatible with as many browsers as possible.

Browser Hijacker

A type of malware that changes the behavior of your web browser. Some of the things browser hijackers can do include replacing your browser’s home page, adding new bookmarks or favorites, redirecting you to a website you didn't want to go to, and covering your desktop with pop-ups.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense

Buddy List

See Friends List


Allows data to continue to be downloaded to you computer while a program plays the first part of the file that's already been downloaded. Buffers let you watch a streaming video or listen to a song without skips and jumps because the program never has to stop playing in order to download more.


A malfunction of a software program. Bugs can be caused by something as simple as a typo in the program's code, or by many complicated procedures running at the same time, or even intentionally caused by hackers and cyber criminals.

Bulletin Board

See Forum.


The second-smallest unit of computer data storage. There are 8 bits in a byte.

See also Kilobyte, Megabyte, and Gigabyte


Carbon Emissions

Two of the most harmful greenhouse gasses, they are mostly carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. They are released into the atmosphere by things like cars, airplanes, power plants and factories.

Learn more: Environmental Issues


Short for Compact Disc, a data storage device. CDs are round, shiny plastic discs that a computer can use a red laser to write data to. An average CD can hold about 700 megabytes of data.

Learn more: Back Up Your Data

Chat Room

A virtual room in cyberspace where people go to "chat," or talk to other people.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications

Chat Slang

Slang used when chatting in cyberspace, where you use shorter words or just letters to stand for other words. For example, you may use "r" instead of "are," or "cuz" instead of "because."

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang

Cheating Software

Hacking software for computer games that gives a player an unfair advantage over others. Cheating software violates the Terms of Use for most games and using it can get your account banned.

Learn more: Respect the Terms of Use

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

An act created by the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to protect the personal information of children in cyberspace. In order to comply, websites that collect information from children under the age of 13 (like for registering an account) must require a parent's permission before they do so.

Learn more: Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

Cloud Computing

Using computing services and programs through a network. With cloud computing, instead of being stored on your computer's hard drive, your data and programs are stored on servers located far away, or "in the cloud." You use your computer and Internet connection to access those servers and a web browser to run programs like word processors and email programs.

Cold Shoulder

To ignore someone, one way to protect yourself from cyber criminals.

Learn more: Protecting Your Personal Information


A type of domain that indicates a website is a commercial site, meaning you can buy things from it. It is now used for both commercial and non-commercial sites and is the most common domain type.

Content Filters

Also known as censorware or web filtering software, used in web browsers to control what content or websites can be viewed. They are frequently used by parents, schools, and companies to limit what people can access from their computers.


Small text files that websites save in your web browser to store information like your username and password. Some malware can scan your cookies to get information about you. You can set your browser to not accept cookies from any website or to warn you before you accept them.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


The rights granted to the author or creator of an original work such as a book, song, website, or picture. It gives the creator the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work, and prevents other people from doing so without getting the creator's permission first.

Learn more: Avoid Plagiarism

Copyright Infringment

Using works that are protected by copyright without getting the author's permission first.

Also see Cyber Piracy


Short for Central Processing Unit, a chip that functions as the brains of the computer. The CPU performs the majority of the millions of calculations the computer needs to make in order to function.

Learn more: How Computers Work


The believability and trustworthiness of a source or message.

Learn more: Evaluating the Information

Cyber Bully

Someone who bullies others in Cyberspace.

Also see Cyber Bullying

Cyber Bullying

Using the Internet to harass, intimidate, embarrass, or put down others. This can include posting embarrassing information on web pages, tricking people into giving out personal information, sending threatening or cruel messages or emails, or pretending to be somebody else to send mean or embarrassing messages.

Learn more: Cyber Bullying

Cyber Crime

A crime committed with the help of a computer or communication device and a network. The network is usually the Internet, but it can also include mobile device networks.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Cyber Crime Units

Special law enforcement and government units created to combat cyber crime by investigating cyber crimes and tracking down cyber criminals.

Learn more: Cyber Crime Units

Cyber Criminal

A person who commits a cyber crime.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Cyber Defender

Someone who is trained to defend Cyberspace from cyber criminals.

Cyber Forensics

The process of extracting data from devices or systems, like a computer or a network, usually to examine as evidence of a cyber crime.

Learn more: Catching Cyber Criminals

Cyber Monday

The first Monday after Thanksgiving, it is the peak online holiday shopping day in the United States. It is also a big day for cyber crimes and scams, as cyber criminals try to take advantage of the online shoppers.

Learn more: Defenses for Online Shopping

Cyber Piracy

Using a computer to copy or share materials that are protected by copyright without the creator's permission. The most common form of cyber piracy is copying and distributing music, movies or software programs, but it can also be as simple as installing certain software on more than one computer.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Cyber Predator

Someone who uses the Internet to find young children, often because they want to meet the child in person and hurt them.

Learn more: Communicating Safely

Cyber Squatting

When someone registers a domain name so they can sell it for a high price later to someone who really wants it. Some cybersquatters buy URLs that are similar to popular existing sites to fool people into checking their sites out.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Cyber Stalking

An aggressive form of cyber bullying, using the Internet to follow, harass or contact others in an unwanted manner. Like offline stalking, cyber stalking is a threatening behavior and is illegal.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Cyber Villain

A very dangerous cyber criminal.

Cyber Woozling

Gathering data from someone’s computer without their knowledge or permission when they visit a website. This is done through web browser cookies, user-installed plug-ins and extra code sent to the person’s computer. Stolen information can include email addresses, what websites you visited and how long you spent at them.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


Another name for the Internet.


Data Compression

Storing information using fewer bytes than the original file used. A .ZIP file is a common data compression type.

Data Rot

Also known as bit rot, the gradual decay of information stored on any device. For example, if you leave a USB flash drive alone for several years and then try to use it, you might find that some of the files cannot be accessed.


Saying things that are not true in order to harm someone's reputation. Defamation is a method sometimes used by cyber bullies and is illegal.

Learn more: Cyber Bullying


Also called "defragging," a process that helps your computer run better. As you use and save files on your computer, it has to find new places on the hard drive to put them. Sometimes it breaks them down into pieces, or "fragments", and puts them in different locations. This slows down your computer because it has to find all the right pieces before anything can run. Defragging helps speed things up by taking the scattered fragments and reorganizing them closer together.

Learn more: How Computers Work

Denial-of-Service Attacks

Flooding a network or server with traffic in order to make it unavailable to its users. A Denial-of-Service attack can make a website completely unusable and is a tactic used by cyber criminals to harm businesses or companies.

Learn more: How Cyber Criminals Operate

Device Driver

A software program that controls a hardware component or device attached to your computer. It acts as a translator for the operating system, converting the operating system's instructions into messages that the device can understand.

Learn more: How Computers Work


The slowest and least expensive way to connect to the Internet, uses a modem and transfers data through the telephone line. You have to dial in to connect and hang up to disconnect, and connections can also be easily disrupted by noise on the line.


A legal statement that officially denies someone's responsibility for something. For example, Wikipedia's disclaimer states that since anyone can contribute content to their site, they cannot guarantee that the information is true, and they are not responsible if it is found to be fake.

Learn more: Evaluating the Information


The last part of a website's URL, an identification label that helps determine what kind of site it is. The most common are .COM, .GOV, .ORG, .EDU, and .NET.

Domain Name

The main part of a website's URL, the combination of the name of the website and the domain type. This website's domain name is "".


Getting information from a computer or server somewhere on the Internet and transferring it to your computer or device.

Learn more: Be Careful With Files


Short for Digital Subscriber Line, a way to connect to the Internet that uses a modem and transfers data through the telephone line. DSL signals use a higher frequency than dial-up signals and so can be sent through the telephone line at the same time as phone signals.


Short for Digital Versatile Disc, a data storage device. DVDs are round, shiny plastic discs that a computer can use a red laser to write data to. An average DVD can hold about 4.7 gigabytes of data.

Learn more: Back Up Your Data



Buying products on the Internet using credit cards or other electronic payments.

Learn more: Defenses for Online Shopping


A type of domain that indicates a website belongs to an educational organization.

Ego Surfing

Using a search engine to look up your own name. Ego surfing is a good way to check in on your online identity and find out any information about you on the web.

Learn more: Managing Your Identity


Electronic mail that is sent over the Internet. You can send email messages to anyone who has an email address.

Email Address

An electronic address where an email can be delivered. Usually it has this format: username@domain.ext, and should be read as "username at domain dot ext."

Email Bombing

Sending a large number of email messages to an email address, which can make the email address unusable or even cause the mail server to crash.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


A type of chat slang, a combination of text characters that resembles a facial expression. Emoticons are used in cyberspace communication to show the mood of the person who is speaking. For example, :-) is a happy face and
:-( is a sad face.

Learn more: Internet Chat Slang


Transforming text or data into an unreadable form so that only people with access to the right software can "decrypt", or decode it. Encrypting data makes it harder for cyber criminals to use it for cyber crimes.

Learn more: Setting Up Your Defenses

Environmental Impact

The result of anything that changes the environment, like using resources that the earth cannot replace (such as oil and coal) or producing harmful products (such as waste and pollution).

Learn more: Environmental Issues


A portable electronic device for reading digital books and magazines.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices


An inexpensive networking method commonly used for LANs, or local area networks. A basic ethernet network has two or more computers with a network interface card installed, a networking hub that sends data to and from the machines on the network, and cables that connect each computer to the hub.


A crime where someone tries to obtain something from another person, like their property or money, by forcing them against their will. This can be done with threats or promised rewards.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


Fiber Optics

A way to connect to the Internet that uses lines made from flexible, transparent fibers and transmits data with light pulses rather than with electrical signals like dial-up and DSL. Fiber optic lines can cover longer distances and handle more traffic than copper telephone lines, but they are not available everywhere and frequently must be installed in order to bring service to an area.


A collection of bytes of data that remains available for software programs to use again even after the current program has finished using it.

File Attachment

See Attachment.

File Compression

See Data Compression.


A defensive software program that acts like a security guard and monitors and controls the traffic coming into and out of your machine from a network. Firewalls can help protect your computer from malware and intruders.

Learn more: Setting Up Your Defenses


Marking something or someone as suspicious or inappropriate. Some social networking sites, forums and chat rooms give users the ability to flag posts or other people so the moderators can investigate further.

Learn more: Communicating Safely

Flame War

A hostile argument among several people as a result of flaming.

Learn more: Cyber Bullying


Posting messages that are deliberately mean and insulting. Flaming is a type of cyber bullying and can sometimes even grow into a flame war.

Learn more: Cyber Bullying


Text input boxes in a web page that allow you to enter information and send it to the website's owner.

Also see Unsafe Form.


Also called a bulletin board or message board, a website where people can have discussions about topics like their favorite video game or sports team. Unlike a chat room, where conversation takes place in real-time, these conversation "threads" become part of the website and can be viewed by anyone with access to the forum for as long as the site keeps them up. In this way, they are similar to a blog or comments posted on a social networking site.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications

Forum Troll

People who post rude or mean comments in forums for the sole purpose of upsetting or insulting people. The name "troll" comes from the fishing term "trolling" or trailing bait through a certain spot hoping for a bite. Trolls can be relatively easy to spot; they will often post things anonymously that have no relevance to the conversation or demonstrate a bias.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


See Internet Fraud.


Free software that you can download from the Internet. Also see Shareware.

Learn more: Be Careful With Files

Friends List

The list of friends that you have accepted into your social network or added to an instant messenger program or online game so that you can stay in contact with them.

Learn more: Communicating Safely


Short for File Transfer Protocol, the rules and formats that apply to copying files from one computer to another over a network. With FTP, files are uploaded and downloaded from a person's computer to a server.



Short for Graphics Interchange Format, an image file format that can contain up to 256 colors. GIFs compress files by reducing the number of colors. GIF files are good for images with few colors like logos, drawings and comics. They also allow transparency and animation, so they can be used for simple special effects on websites. Also see .JPEG


A unit of computer data storage. There are 1024 megabytes in 1 gigabyte.

Global Warming

The increase of the average surface temperature of the planet and the scientific theory that it will continue to increase. Some scientists believe that human-made pollution, like carbon emissions, is contributing to global warming.

Learn more: Environmental Issues

Gold Farmers

People who play online games to earn game money to sell to others online. Selling and purchasing this gold is usually in violation of the Terms of Use, and the workers who actually play the game are usually treated horribly by the company and make very little money.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


A type of domain that indicates a website belongs to a government organization.

Graphics Card

A hardware card in your computer that processes and outputs images to the computer's monitor. The graphics card receives information from the CPU about what to display, decides how to use the pixels on the screen to display that image, and sends that information to the monitor. For 3-D images, it first creates everything out of straight lines, called a "wireframe," and then fills in all the lighting, texture and color. In a fast-paced game, it has to do this around sixty times per second.

Learn more: How Computer Work

Green Computing

A philosophical approach to computers where the goal is to reduce the environmental impact of both the user and the manufacturer. This includes making computers as energy efficient as possible, using materials that can be recycled or are biodegradable, and using fewer toxic materials and disposing of them safely.

Learn more: Green Computing

Greenhouse Gasses

Gasses in the atmosphere that trap and reflect heat and radiation back to the planet's surface. It is believed that over the last century, the amount of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere has increased because of more carbon emissions, and that this is contributing to global warming.

Learn more: Environmental Issues


When companies claim their products are environmentally safe to get people to buy them, even if they really aren't. The term comes from the words "green," which means environmentally friendly, and "whitewashing," which means twisting words to cover up a mistake or an unwanted result.

Learn more: Being Green

Grey Hat Hacker

See Hacker, Grey Hat


Someone who acts like a cyber bully or asks for your account information in an online game.

Learn more: Online Gaming Netiquette


Short for Graphical User Interface, a type of interface used for operating systems that allows users to see files and manipulate them with a mouse or stylus. Before GUIs, most operating systems displayed the computer’s data as lines of text and files were manipulated by entering complicated lines of text, or "command lines."

Learn more: How Computers Work



A person who hacks into computers to view or alter information that they don't have access to.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Hacker, Black Hat

Hackers who use their computer expertise to break into systems and steal information illegally. Also see Hacker, White Hat, and Hacker, Grey Hat

Learn more: Catching Cyber Criminals

Hacker, Grey Hat

A former Black Hat hacker who turns away from crime to be like a White Hat hacker and help fight cyber crime.

Learn more: Reformed Cyber Criminals

Hacker, White Hat

A hacker who is a cyber defender and specializes in testing the security of information systems. They will attempt to hack into a company's network and then present the company with a report detailing the existing security holes and how those holes can be fixed.

Learn more: Catching Cyber Criminals


Breaking through a computer or network's security defenses to view or alter information that the intruder does not have access to.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Hard Drive

The hardware component of a computer where it stores data for long-term use. It contains a hard, disk-shaped platter made of a magnetic material, and uses magnets to store digital data on the platter. The magnetic material allows the computer to easily erase and rewrite the data whenever it needs to.

Learn more: How Computers Work


The physical components of a computer, usually contained within the computer's main case or tower.

Learn more: How Computers Work


A deliberate attempt to deceive or trick someone into believing or accepting that something is real or true, when the hoaxster knows it is not. A hoax is similar to fraud, but a hoaxster doesn't intend to gain anything from the victim or harm them.

Learn more: Evaluating the Information

Home Page

The main page of a website, also the first page that loads in your web browser when you launch it.


The web server that a website's files are stored on.


Short for Hyper Text Markup Language, a programming language used for website files. HTML code creates the structure of a website by using labels, or tags, to designate the different parts of the site. For example, a paragraph has a different tag than a picture does, and the browser knows to display them differently based on their tags.


Short for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, the rules and formats that apply to sending and receiving information over the Internet, usually for viewing HTML websites.


Short for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure, it is like HTTP but with an additional level of security. HTTPS connections send data after it has been encrypted so even if the data is found by some cyber criminal, it will be all jumbled and useless. Some web browsers indicate if a website is secure with a lock icon at the bottom of the browser. If the lock is closed, the site is using HTTPS and is more secure.


A link that sends you from one website to another with a click of your mouse. Hyperlinks can be applied to words or pictures.


Icky Feeling

An uncomfortable feeling you get when you see something inappropriate or scary.


A small image that represents a website, software program or file in a GUI.

Identity Theft

Stealing somebody else's personal information to pretend to be them. People usually do this to steal money from someone's bank account or buy things with their credit cards.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Insider Attack

When someone who has permission to access a system or network misuses that access to attack the network or steal data. Insider attacks can be difficult to trace because most security measures are designed to protect against outside attacks and insiders can know how to avoid them. They can also happen by accident when a network isn't properly secured, someone can stumble across data that they shouldn't be allowed to access.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals

Instant Messaging

A way to chat with others in cyberspace using text messages that appear almost instantly. Instant message conversations are usually just between two people.

Learn more: Cyberspace Communications


A network that connects millions of computers around the world.

Internet Addiction

When you become so obsessed with being in cyberspace that it interferes with your normal life. Internet addicts choose to make the Internet the most important thing in their lives, more important than family, offline friends and school. Their unhealthy behavior causes stress for the people around them and can ruin relationships.

Internet Fraud

Using the Internet to intentionally deceive someone for personal gain or to harm them. Also see Hoax.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals


An internal, secured network that functions like the Internet but doesn't actually connect to the Internet. Intranets operate through a LAN and are used by companies to securely and easily share information and devices from anywhere within the business. Usually, only employees who work for that company can access its intranet, and sometimes only from a company computer.


Illegally entering or taking another person's property. A cyber intrusion is when someone who does not have permission gains access to a computer or network. Also see Hacking.

Learn more: Cyber Crime and Criminals


Short for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides Internet access to home users and businesses. Most ISPs charge a monthly fee for their service, and the price varies according to the speed of the connection and the service package.


Short for Internet Protocol, the rules and formats that apply to sending data over the Internet.

IP Address

Short for Internet Protocol Address, a unique number assigned to every computer and device connected to a network that is used to identify any data sent or received by the machine.

IP Spoofing

Using a fake or stolen IP address to commit a cyber crime. Sometimes cyber criminals will try to copy the IP address of a computer that their target network already trusts so they don't have to hack the password.

Learn more: Cyber Crimes and Criminals



Changing the limitations of a device so you can do something that the manufacturer didn’t want you to do. People jailbreak mobile devices so that they can change settings or download programs that are normally unavailable to them. Although it is not illegal to jailbreak a device, it usually voids your warranty, so if something happens to it, the manufacturer doesn’t have to replace it. It can also make it easier for hackers to break into your mobile device.

Learn more: Defending Mobile Devices

Joke Programs

Prank software programs that cause your computer to behave strangely or display fake error messages that trick you into thinking something is wrong. They can change the appearance of your computer's desktop or mouse cursor, or even make it look like your hard drive has been erased. Joke programs are not malware because they do not harm your computer, but they can make it difficult to use.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defense


Short for Joint Photographic Experts Group, an image file format that can display millions of colors and is good for photographs. JPEGs compress the file by discarding details that are barely noticeable to the human eye. The more compressed a file is, the more distorted it will appear. JPEGs are not good for images that have very little data to compress, like line drawings. Also see .GIF


Key Logger

Software that records the letters and characters you type on the keyboard. Key loggers can be used for parental controls, in the workplace to make sure employees are doing what they are supposed to, and during testing to see what causes errors in a program. Some malware also uses key loggers to capture people's passwords and personal information as they type them.

Learn more: Computer and Device Defenses


Words that you enter into a search engine, which it then scans through websites in order to generate the search results.

Learn more: Searching for Resources


A unit of computer data storage. There are 1024 bytes in 1 kilobyte.